We have reviewed the nature of reward, aversive, and alerting signals in DA neurons, and have proposed a hypothesis about the underlying neural pathways and their roles in motivated behavior. In value coding DA neurons they promote seeking of environments where alert cues are available so that salient outcomes can be anticipated in advance. Consistent with this hypothesis, dopamine has a potent influence on synaptic plasticity in numerous brain regions Surmeier et al. A second type of DA neurons encode motivational salience , excited by both rewarding and aversive events. Human substantia nigra neurons encode unexpected financial rewards. VGLUT2 in dopamine neurons is required for psychostimulant-induced behavioral activation.
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